2nd Semester



Course Title

Functional English

Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 0 3)


The main objectives of this course are:

  • To make students aware of the mistakes that are made while using English
  • To improve upon the spoken and written skills of the students
  • To enable students to understand the meaning of words in context and to comprehend the ideas that a passage conveys.


·         Use of Noun: Countable and Uncountable Nouns

·         Adjectives: difference between ‘much’ and ‘many’; ‘few’ and ‘a few’; ‘little’ and ‘a little’; ‘either’ and ‘neither’

·         Use of Articles

·         Adverbs: hard, hardly; position of adverbs

·         Use of Auxiliary Verbs (have, had)

·         Use of Modals: can, could, may, might, must, ought, should

·         Use of Pronouns

·         Prepositions: from/since/for, at/on/by, above/over, in/into, underneath/beneath/below

·         Use of Conjunction

·         Common Errors in Pakistani English (e.g., indirect narration, suffix ‘-ful’)

·         Function of Tenses; concord

·         Passive Voice

·         WH-Questions

·         Request, Regret, Instructions

·         Spoken Language; Contractions, Question Tags, and Short Answers (Yes, they can, etc.)

·         Information Transfer: Converting information into charts, tables, diagrams, verbally and vice versa, etc.)

·         Vocabulary building (forming words with prefixes and suffixes)

·         Comprehension Passage; Understanding words in context

·         Paragraph writing: Topic sentence; writing different kinds of paragraphs such as descriptive and argumentative paragraphs

·         Dialogue

·         Precise.

Recommended Texts

·         A Practical English Grammar, by: Thomson AJ, Martinet AV; Oxford University Press.

·         Practical English Usage, by: Swan, Michael; Oxford University Press.

·         Reading English Objectively, by: Malone RL (Part 1 for BS level, Part 2 for MS level); Macmillan.

·         Teaching Tenses, by: R Atken.

·         Living English Structure, by: Allen W Stannard.


Course Title

Pakistan Studies

Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 0 3)


The main objectives of this course are:

  • To develop vision of historical perspective; govern contemporary Pakistan, ideological background
  • To study the process of governance, national arising in the modern age and posing challenge.


·         Historical Perspective

Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Khan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

A. Factors leading to Muslim separatism

B. People and Land

i. Indus Civilization

ii. Muslim advent

iii. Location and geo-physical features.

·         Government and Politics in Pakistan

Political and constitutional phases:

i. 1947-58

ii. 1958-71

iii. 1971-77

iv. 1977-88

v. 1988-99

vi. 1999 onward

·         Contemporary Pakistan

i. Economic institutions and issues

ii. Society and social structure

iii. Ethnicity

iv. Foreign Policy of Pakistan and challenges

v. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan

Recommended Texts

·         Afzal, M Rafique. Political parties in Pakistan. Vol I, II and III. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, 1998.

·         Akbar, S Zaidi. Issues in Pakistan’s economy. Karachi; Oxford University Press, 2000.

·         Aziz, KK. Party politics in Pakistan. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research, 1976.

·         Amin, Tahir. Ethno-national movement in Pakistan. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.

·         Burki, Shahid Javed. State and Society in Pakistan. The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1980.

·         Haq, Noor ul. Making of Pakistan: the military perspective. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research, 1993.

·         Mehmood, Safdar. Pakistan Kayyuntoota. Lahore: Idara-e- Saqafat-e-Islamia.

·         Mehmood, Safdar. Pakistan political roots and development. Lahore, 1994.

·         Muhammad Waseem. Pakistan under martial law. Lahore: Vanguard, 1987.

·         SM Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Pakistan’s foreign policy: a historical analysis. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1993.

·         Sayeed, Khalid Bin. The political system of Pakistan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967.

·         Wilcox, Wayne. The emergence of Bangladesh. Washington: American Enterprise, Institute of Public Policy Research, 1972.

·         Zahid, Ansar. History and culture of Sindh. Karachi: Royal Book Company, 1980.

·         Ziring, Lawrence. Enigma of political development. Kent England: Dawson, 1980.

Course Title

Introduction to Bio-Mathematics

Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 0 3)


The main objectives of this course are:

  • To apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering
  • To analyze and solve numerically problems encountered in biotechnology and genetic engineering.
  • To analyze and interpret data,
  • To identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems,
  • To communicate results effectively,
  • To use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.


Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

·         Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering

·         Identify, formulate and solve engineering problems

·         Communicate effectively

·         Use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice


·         Introduction. Aims and relevance.

·         Indices, logarithms and exponential functions.

·         Graphs of linear and quadratic functions.

·         Hyperbola, circle and trigonometric functions.

·         Binomial expansion.

·         Calculus.

·         Matrix algebra.

Recommended Texts

·         Machin D. (1976). Biomathematics: An Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan.

·         Hirst DM. (2014). Mathematics for Chemists. Palgrave Macmillan.

·         Ayrus FJ. (2001). Theory and Problems of Differential and Integral Calculus (Schuam’s Outline Series). McGraw Hill.

·         Marsden J, Weinstein A. (1998). Calculus. Benjamin Cummings.

·         Francis PG. (1997).  Mathematics for Chemistry. Chapman and Hall.

·         Keeddy ML. (1984). Algebra with Trigonometry. Addison Wesley.


Course Title

Cell Biology

Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 3 4)


The main objectives of this course are:

·         To understand the cell and its organization of architecture and the unified role it plays for the ultimate sustainability of the organisms.

·         To learn the structure of all major cell parts.

·         To learn how a cell functions and how this function is accomplished by the various cell structures.

  • To gain an understanding of the methods of cell biology and to obtain practical experience with some of them.


Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

·         Properly handle a standard light microscope so as to form a focused image with low, medium, and high power objectives.

·         Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

·         Name and/or identify the covered eukaryotic cell extraneous coats, plasma membrane, matrix, organelles, and nuclear components and describe and/or identify their general functions within the cell.

·         Describe and/or identify the names and cellular events occurring in the covered periods and phases of eukaryotic mitotic cell cycle.

·         Describe endomembrane system components and dynamics, and explain their role in membraneassembly, protein targeting, protein secretion and endocytosis.

·         Describe apoptosis and able to illustrate how defects in the cell cycle lead to cancer.


·         Introduction to cell biology, “cell the basic building block of all organisms”. Cell theory.

·         Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (plant and animal cells).

·         Ultra structure, chemical composition and functions of Cell wall.

·         Cell membrane, membrane fluidity, movement of substances across membrane.

·         Mitochondria and chloroplast.

·         Cytoplasmic membranes (cellular organelles) endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, peroxisome, nucleus, ribosome, etc.

·         Cytoskeleton, actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments.

·         Cell cycle and apoptosis.

·         Cancer cell.


·         Microscopic examination of prokaryotic cell.

·         Separation and characterization of cell organelles.

·         Preparation of slides to show stages of cell division.

·         Study morphology of yeast cell.

·         Karyotyping.

·         Study of some properties of biological molecules.

·         Extraction of DNA from cell.

·         Study of chromosomes morphology and variation in chromosome number.

·         Staining of different cells.

·         Cell culture techniques.

Recommended Texts

·         Lodish H, Berk A, Kaiser CA, Krieger M, Bretscher A, Ploegh H, Amon A, Scott MP. (2016). Molecular Cell Biology. 8th Edition. WH Freeman & Co Ltd.

·         Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Morgan D, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. (2014). Molecular Biology of the Cell. 6th Edition. Garland Science.

·         Karp G. (2013). Cell and Molecular Biology. 7th Edition. John Wiley & Sons.

·         Reece JB, Urry LA, Cain ML, Wasserman SA, Minorsky PV, Jackson RB. (2013). Campbell Biology. 10th Edition. Benjamin Cummings.

·         Hardin J, Bertoni GP, Kleinsmith LJ. (2011). Becker's World of the Cell. 8th Edition. Pearson.


Course Title


Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 3 4)




·         Enzymes: General properties, nature, nomenclature and classification of enzymes, Effect of different factors on enzymatic activity, Cofactors and co-enzymes, Zymogens, Isozymes, Enzyme specificity, Enzyme-substrate interactions and nature of active site.

·         Vitamins: Chemistry, classification, and functions of fat soluble and water soluble vitamins.

·         Hormones: Chemistry, functions and metabolism of thyroid, adrenal, pancreatic, steroid and growth hormones, Hormonal regulation of metabolism.


·         Microscopic examination of Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

·         Hydrolysis of a protein and quantitative tests for amino acids.

·         Titration curves of amino acids.

·         Estimation of glucose in mixture of monosaccharide.

·         Acid, saponification and iodine values of fat.

Recommended Texts

·         A. L Lehninger, Biochemistry, Worths Publications, London.

·         E.S. Conn and P.K. Stump, Biochemistry, John Wiley, New York.

·         M. Yudkin, and Offord, Comprehensive Biochemistry, Longmann, London.

·         I. S. Kleiner and J.M. Orten, General Biochemistry, Mosby Co, New York.

·         Guyton and Hall, Text Book of Medical Physiology, W. B. Saunders UK

·         A.R. Mahler, and E.H. Cordes, Biological Chemistry, Harper and Row, New York.

4th Semester

Course Title


Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 0 3)


  • Biological Oxidation and Reduction: Biological oxidation and reduction, Bioenergetics, Energy transfer through carrier ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism: Pentose phosphate pathway, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Lipid Metabolism: Lipid metabolism, biosynthesis of fatty acids, glycerids, phospholipids, and ketone bodies, Degradation and biosynthesis of sterols and bile acids.
  • Protein Metabolism: Protein metabolism and biosynthesis of amino acids, deamination and transamination, urea cycle, creatine, creatinine.
  • Nucleic acid Metabolism: Metabolism of nucleic acids, biosynthesis and degradation of purins, pyrimidine, nucleosides and nucleotides.

Recommended Texts

·         Murray, Mayes, Granner, Rodwell, Harpers Illustrated Biochemistry, McGraw Hills Co.

·         Lipponcot’s Illustrated Reviews, Biochemistry, Tokyo, Japan.

·         E. S. west, W. Todd, H.S. Mason, J.T. Bruggen, Text book of biochemistry, Macmillan, Co, New York.

·         A. L Lehninger, Biochemistry, Worths Publications, London.

·         J. L. Jain, Sunjay Jain, Nitin Jain, Elementary Biochemistry, S. Chand, New Delhi, India..


Course Title

Microbial Genetics

Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 3 4)


Fundamentals of Genetics


The main objectives of this course are:

  • To introduce the basic concepts of microbial genetics.
  • To understand genetic aspects of extra chromosomal elements in bacteria, yeast and bacteriophages
  • To explain the processes behind mutations, DNA repair in microbial genomes.
  • To understand molecular mechanisms of genetic exchange (horizontal gene transfer) in bacteria, bacteriophage and yeast.
  • To identify and explain genetic methods for construction of chromosomal maps in bacteria.


Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Have knowledge of  genetic aspects of  plasmids, episomes, transposons and gene cassettes
  • Explain mechanisms underlying changes and stability in genomes of microbes.
  • Develop the level of understanding of principles and mechanisms of intracellular genetic exchange in bacteria via transformation, conjugation and transduction in bacteria.


  • Introduction to microbial genetics: E. coli, yeast and viruses as a model organisms  in microbial genetics
  • Extra chromosomal elements: Plasmids in bacteria and yeast; structure, classification, replication and uses of plasmids in genetic engineering and biotechnology. Episomes; F plasmid and bacteriophage lambda as episomes, Transposable genetic elements: types and function, Tn transposons of E. coli, Mu a transposable phage and Ty a transposon of yeast.
  • DNA mutagenesis: types, mechanisms of spontaneous and induced mutations,  mutagenic agents: physical and chemical agents
  • Repair systems for DNA damage: Types of DNA damages, Repair mechanisms i.e. Photo reactivation repair, Dark repair (Excision repair, recombination repair, SOS repair).
  • Genetic recombination: generalized recombination, site specific recombination & illegitimate recombination.
  • Gene transfer mechanisms: Transformation, Conjugation & transduction, their type’s mechanisms & significance. Cross-phylogenic transfer.
  • Gene mapping by conjugation & transduction: circular chromosomal maps of bacteria.
  • Introduction to genetic rearrangements: gene cassettes and integrons.


·         Development of bacterial growth curve by using spectrophotometer.

·         Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacterial cells.

·         Isolation of bacterial and yeast DNA

·         Isolation of antibiotic resistant mutants in a microbial population.

·         Detection of mutagenic activity by the Ames Test.

·         Preparation of a survival curve for the given bacterial culture using germicidal UV radiation as a mutagen

·         Preparation of master plate and carry out its replica plating.

·         Demonstration of genetic recombination in bacteria by transformation.

·         Demonstration of fertility plasmid transfer in bacteria via conjugation.

·         Construction of circular chromosomal maps of bacteria via conjugation.

Recommended Texts

·         Streips UN, Yasbin RE.  (2002). Modern Microbial Genetics. 2nd Edition. Wiley- Liss Publisher.

·         Dale JW, Von-Schantz M. (2011). From Genes to Genomes – Concepts and Applications of DNA Technology. 3rd Edition. John Wiley &Sons.

·         Hartl DL. (2009). Essential Genetics: A Genomics Perspective. 5th Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning Publisher.

·         Singh BR. (2009).  Microbial Genetics Questioned to Understand: Bacterial Genetics, Bacteriophage, Plasmids, Transformation, Mutations, Genetic Engineering, Bio-informatics, 1782 Q. 1st Edition. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

·         Cohen GN. (2010). Microbial Biochemistry. 4th Edition. Springer.

·         Maksoud E, Zaied KA. (2011). Fundamental Microbial Genetics. 1st Edition. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing.

·          Lee YK. (2013). Microbial Biotechnology: Principles and Applications. 3rd Edition. World Scientific Publishing Company.

·         Chaudhari K. (2013). Microbial Genetics. 1st Edition. The Energy and Resources Institute Publisher.

·         Snyder L, Peters JE, Henkin TM. (2013). Molecular Genetics of Bacteria. 4th Edition. ASM Press.

·         Brown JW. (2014). Principles of Microbial Diversity. 1st Edition. ASM Press.

·         Das S, Dash HR. (2015). Microbial Biotechnology- A Laboratory Manual for Bacterial Systems. 1st Edition. Springer.


Course Title


Course Code


Credit Hours

(2 3 3)


The main objectives of this course are:

·         To introduce students to various theoretical and practical aspects of enzymology

·         To introduce the students to the basics of biochemical reactions, the role of the enzyme and substrate in the reactions and their structural details at the molecular levels.

·         To introduce the students to the structure, function and kinetics of enzyme and their role as catalyst and regulator of cell metabolism

·         To make the students prepared for advanced enzymology courses


Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

·         Understand the major classes of enzymes and their functions in the cell

·         Understand the role of co-enzymes, cofactors, in enzyme catalyzed reaction

·         Understand enzyme kinetics

·         Define and describe the properties of enzymes in and regulates biochemical pathways (inhibition, allosterism)


·         History and discoveries of enzymes, chemistry and functions of enzyme in the cell.

·         Nature of enzyme and non-protein factor; Introduction to vitamins and co-enzymes, fat and water-soluble vitamins, classification of co-enzymes, functions of coenzymes.

·         Classification and nomenclature of enzymes; oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases.

·         Enzymes structure; number of peptide chains, molecular weight, amino acid sequence, structure & configuration of enzymes, determination of active site. Determination of structure of enzymes.

·         Enzyme inhibition; reversible inhibition, irreversible inhibition, competitive inhibition, non-competitive inhibition, Uncompetitive Inhibition, and their graphical presentation, applications.

·         Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions; Michealis-Menten equation, Estimation of kinetic parameters Km ,Vmax  etc.

·         Mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reaction; Transition state theory, effects of Temperature, pH, ionic strength and inhibitors on enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

·         Isoenzymes; introduction, identification of isoenzymes, significance of isoenzymes.

·         Regulation of enzymes; regulatory enzymes as allosteric enzymes, types of regulatory enzymes.

·         Uses of enzyme in everyday life.


·         Extraction of Tyrosinase enzyme.

·         Effect of pH, Temperature on enzyme activity.

·         Production of corn syrup using Bacterial amylase.

·         Amino acid assay by ninhydrine colorimetric method.

·         Estimation of Amylase in saliva.

·         Isolation of phospholipids from egg yolk.

·         Determination of catalytic power of acid phosphatase.

·         Isolation of Casein from milk.

·         Starch hydrolysis by Amylase.

·         Isolation of enzymes from different fruits.

Recommended Texts

·         Miehlke K, Williams RM, Lopez DA. (1994). Enzymes: The Fountain of Life. 1st Edition. Neville Publishers.

·         Wiseman A. (1985). Handbook of Enzyme Biotechnology. 2nd Edition. Ellis Horwood Ltd.

·         Eun H. (2011). Enzymology Primer for Recombinant DNA Technology. Academic Press.

·         Price NC, Stevens L. (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins. 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press.

·         Polaina J, MacCabe AP. (2007). Industrial Enzymes: Structure, Function and Applications. Springer.

·         Nelson DL, Cox MM. (2012). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 6th Edition. W.H. Freeman & Co.

·         Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Gatto GJ, Stryer L. (2015). Biochemistry. 8th Edition. W. H. Freeman & Co.

·         Palmer T, Bonner PL. (2007). Enzymes: Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Clinical Chemistry. 2nd Edition. Woodhead Publishing.

·         Fersht A. (2002) Structure and Mechanism in Protein Science. W.H Freeman & Co.


Course Title

Immunology & Immunogenetics

Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 3 4)


The main objectives of this course are:

  • To have knowledge about immunology, immune system etc.
  • To knowledge about different immune responses of animal cells to foreign agents.
  • To have knowledge about MHC molecules and their functions.
  • To know about antibodies and antigens.
  • To have knowledge about vaccine and its applications etc.
  • To know about B and T-cell receptors
  • To know antibodies therapy.


Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Gain knowledge about immune system.
  • Differentiate between antigens and antibodies
  • Gain knowledge about the complement system.
  • Diagnose various diseases on antigen antibodies interactions.
  • Know how antibodies diversity is generated
  • Gain knowledge about MHC expression and functions
  • Gain knowledge about immunoglobulin expression and regulation
  • Gain knowledge monoclonal antibodies formation.


·         Historical prospective of immunology.

·         Overview of the immune system, innate and adaptive immune systems, components of innate immunity, types of adaptive immunity, cells and tissues of immune system, interrelationship between innate and acquired immunity.

·         Antigen and Immunogen, properties of antigen, major classes of antigens, Epitope, Hapten, Adjvants. Antibody structure, types and functions, immunoglobulin variants (isotypes, allotypes and idiotypes), Immunoglublin super family, monoclonal and polyclonal antibiodies, B-Cell Receptor, T-Cell Receptor. 

·         Introduction to Major Histocomaptiblity complex, classes, Cytokines (properties, Receptor and functions of cytokines) Complement proteins (components, functions and activation). Autoimmune diseases, Vaccines, Immunodefiency, transplant immunology, Inflammation, Hyper sensitivity.

·         Primary immune system disorders, Causes and effect of Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD).

·         Genetics of T- Cell and B-Cell antigen receptors (TCR & BCR).

·         Expression of Ig Genes, Synthesis, Assembly, and Secretion of Immunoglobulins, Regulation of Ig-Gene Transcription, Antibody Genes and Antibody Engineering, Genetically Engineered Antibodies in Therapy.

·         Immunoglobulins organization and diversity generation, Genetics of gene arrangement, Mechanism of class switching.

·         MHC Molecules and Genes, Regulation of MHC Expression, MHC and Disease Susceptibility, Antigen presentation (Endogenous and Exogenous Antigens), Mechanism of tolerance, Mechanism of immunosupression and immunodeficiency, Immune disorders.

·         Advances in immunodiagnostics, Recent advances in immunogenetics.


  • Total Blood count (Leukocyte estimation).
  • Differential leukocyte count.
  • Blood grouping (ABO and Rh)
  • Agglutination test (Widal test).
  • Precipitation tests.
  • ELISA.
  • Total erytrocytic and leukocytic count (TEC, LEC)
  • C reactive protein test.
  • Cold agglutination test.
  • Complement fixation test.

Recommended Texts

·         Owen J, Punt J, Stranford S. (2013). Kuby Immunology. 7th Edition. WH Freeman & Company.

·         Delves PJ, Martin SJ, Burton DR, Roitt IM. (2011). Riott Essential Immunology. 12th Edition. Wiley-Blackwell.

·         Paul WE. (2012). Fundamental Immunology. 7th Edition. LWW Pulisher.

·         Male D, Brostoff J, Roth D, Roitt I. (2012). Immunology. 8th Edition. Saunders.

·         Rao CV. (2006). Immunology: A Text Book. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Scientific.

·         Tizard I. (2004). Immunology: An Introduction. 4th Edition. Cengage Learning.

·         Playfair JHL, Chain BM. (2012). Immunology at a Glance. 10th Edition. Wiley-Blackwell.

·         Murphy K, Weaver C. (2016). Janeway's Immunobiology, 9th Edition. Garland Science.

·         Janeway CA, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomchik MJ. (2001). Immunobiology. 5th Edition. Garland Science.


Course Title


Course Code


Credit Hours

 (3 0 3)




·         Introduction to inferential statistics.

·         Survey sampling and sampling distribution: Introduction, statistical populations, advantages of sampling, probability and non-probability sampling, sampling distributions, sampling with and without replacement, sampling and non-sampling errors, important kinds of random samples, sampling distributions.

·         Estimation: Introduction, estimates and estimators, point estimation, estimation by confidence interval.

·         Introduction to hypothesis testing: Statistical hypothesis, null and alternative hypothesis, test-statistic, acceptance and rejection region, type-I and type-II errors, the significance level, one-tailed and two-tailed tests, tests based on normal distribution tests based on t-distribution, tests based on chi-square distribution (only testing of hypothesis about p’s of multinomial distribution and testing of hypothesis of independence in contingency table) analysis of variance.

·         Regression and correlation.

·         Experimental designs: introduction, basic principles, completely randomized design, experimental layout, statistical model and analysis, advantages and disadvantages, randomized complete block design, statistical model and analysis, advantages and disadvantages, latin square design, statistical model and analysis, advantages and disadvantages. Multiple comparison tests; least significant difference test, Duncan-multiple range test.

Recommended Texts

  • Mahajan BK. (1997). Methods in Biostatistics. 6th Edition.  Jaypee Brothers Pub. New Delhi.
  • Banerjee PK. (2004). Introduction to Biostatistics.  S. Chand  and Company Ltd. New Delhi.
  • Chaudhry and Kamal. (1999). Introduction to statistical theory 7th Edition. Ilmi Kitab Khana.
  • Spiegel and Stephens. (1999). Statistics. McGraw Hill companies.
  • Jerrold H. Zar. Biostatistical Analysis. 4th Edition, Neelab Printers, Rawalpindi.
  • David JB, Bishop M, Cannings C. (2003). Handbook of Statistical Genetics. John Wiley & Sons.

BS 6th Semester

Environmental Biotechnology



  Course Code: BTGE-312                                                   Credit Hours 3(2+1)


Course objective(s):

  • To give a comprehensive idea of the different facets of environmental problems
  • To exploit some of the basic biological processes in cost-effective manners towards the amelioration of the degrading eco-health and eco-resources


Course Outcomes

At the end of the course, the students will have a proficient knowledge about the significance of the environments as well as the causes and remediation strategies of pollution causing agents.


Course Contents


  • Introduction: Role of biotechnology, the scope of use.
  • Environmental Pollution: Types, impacts, pollution control strategies.
  • Contaminated land & Bioremediation: Rremediation methods, the suitability of bioremediation, factors affecting the use of bioremediation.
  • Phytoremediation: metal and organic phytoremediation.
  • Aerobes and effluents: Sewage treatment, nitrogenous wastes, trickling filters, activated sludge system, algal treatment system, pure oxygen systems, the oxidation ditch, rotating biological contractor, membrane bioreactor, cellulose ion exchange media, sludge disposal.
  • Biotechnology and wastes: Bio-wastes, composting, anaerobic digestion, annelidic conversion, biowastes to ethanol, eutrophic fermentation.
  • Integrated environmental biotechnology: Bioenergy, methane biogas, ethanol fermentation, ethanol fermentation, biodiesal, integrated agricultural applications, plant disease suppression, microbial pesticides, plant/ microbe interaction, plant pathogens.
  • Global environment problems: Ozone depletion, UV-B, green- house effect and acid rain, their impact and biotechnological approaches for management.





  • Determination of total dissolved solids of water
  • Determination of dissolved oxygen concentration of water sample
  • Determination of biological oxygen demand (BOD) of sewage sample
  • Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of sewage sample
  • Effect of heavy metals on economically important crops
  • Visit to industrial areas and the impact assessment of waste effluents on crops and human health
  • Bacteriological examination of water: the Coliform MPN Test and Membrane Filter Technique


Suggested Books

  • B.E. Rittman and P.L. McCarty (2001). “ Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Application. McGrill Hill: ISBN# 0072345535.
  • Gareth M.Evans and Judith C. Furlong (). “ Environmental Biotechnology: Theory and Application. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
  • Allsopp,D. Seal,K.J.,ELBS/Edward Arnold () “Introduction to Bioremediation”



Biochemistry-II (Metabolism)      



 Course Code: BTGE-313                            \                         Credit Hours 3(2+1)


            Course Objectives

  • It will help to understand the chemical reactions taking place inside the living organism.
  • It will present an introduction to the basics of metabolism including an overview of the structure and function of all biomolecules and a description of the pathways of metabolisms.
  • It will give the idea about the involvement of different organs in metabolism.

Course Outcomes

  • Student will understand the chemical reactions taking place inside the living organism.
  • Student will understand metabolism including an overview of the structure and function of all biomolecules and a description of the pathways of metabolisms and changes.

Course Contents:

Carbohydrate metabolism (Glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, Entner-Doudoroff pathway, fermentation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport chain,

metabolism of cellulose, biosynthesis of sugars and polysaccharides, gluconeogenesis,

biosynthesis and breakdown of glycogen in animals, regulation of glycogen metabolism.

Bioenergetics and thermodynamics; electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, role of mitochondria in Apoptosis and oxidative stress, photosynthesis,

photophosphorylation and light absorption)

Protein metabolism (Biosynthesis of protein and amino acids, protein and amino acid catabolism, Disorders related with protein Metabolism)

Fat Metabolism (Biosynthesis of fatty acids.Lipid catabolism. Mobilization and transport of fats .Biosynthesis of Eicosanoids. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols Membrane phospholipids Cholesterol and steroids)

Nucleic Acid Metabolism (Biosynthesis of Purines.Biosynthesis of pyrimidines.Regulation of metabolism. Integration, control and disorders of metabolic pathways related to amino Acid, purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Integration and hormonal regulation of mammalian metabolism)




  • Effect of heat, pH, and osmotic pressure on bacterial enzymes, proteins
  • Investigation of enzyme catalyzed reaction.
  • Isolation and purification of enzymes.
  • Extraction of proteins.





  • Quantitative analysis of proteins by column chromatography techniques.
  • Purification of proteins by column chromatography techniques.
  • Determination of protein by biuret methodologies
  • Extraction of amino acids.
  • Glucose determination in blood


Books Recommended:


  1. Voet, D., Voet, J.G. Pratt, C.W. (2005). Fundamentals of Biochemistry. John

Wiley & Sons, New York.

  1. Lehninger, A. L., Nelson, D. L. and Cox, M. M. (2005). Principles of Biochemistry. 3rd Ed. Worth Publishers, New York.
  2. Joseph J.K. (2006). Principles of Biosynthesis. John Wiley & Sons, New


  1. Joseph J.K. (2006) Principles of Metabolisms. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  2. Howl J. (2005). Peptides Synthesis and Applications.
  3. Garby L. (1995) Bioenergetics: Its Thermodynamic Foundation.
  4. Cutler P. (2004).Proteins Purification Protocols. 2nd Edition. John Wiley &          Sons.






Course Code: BTGE-301                                                      Credit Hours: 3(2+1)



Course Contents:

Introduction and historical background. Databases; Classification of databases, protein sequence data bases (SWISS-PROT, PIR), nucleotide sequence data bases (EMBL, DDBJ, GEN BANK). Systems for searching, indexing & cross-referening; Sequence retrieval system (SRS), database searching methods. Alignment & Phylogeny; Pair wise sequence alignment, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, sequence analysis tools, interpretation of sequence data. Structural bioinformatics; Macromolecular 3D Structure databases (PDB, SCOP & CATH). Structure prediction; Homology modeling, protein fold recognition, ab-inition protein structure prediction, predicting trans-membrane domain. Molecular modeling & visualization; DS Viewer & Rasmol.



              Software based practicals.

Books Recommended:

  1. Higgings, D. and Taylor, W. (2000). Bioinformatics: Sequence, structure and

            databanks, Oxford University PRESS.

  1. Kanesha, M. (2000). Post-genome informatics, Oxford University Press.
  2. Pain, R. (2000). Mechanism of protein folding, Oxford University press.
  3. Attwood, T. K. (1999). Introduction to Bioinformatics, Oxford University Press.
  4. Wang, J. T. L. Shapiro, B. A. Shasha, D. (1999). Pattern discovery in bimolecular data, Oxford University Press.
  5. Baxevanis, A. S. Ouellette, B. F. F. (1998). Bioinformatics: a practical guide to the analysis of genses & proteins. Wiley-interscience., A. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publications.
  6. Krawetz,(2003). Introduction to Bioinformatics. American Society for


  1. Michael M., P. Barry (2004) Bioinformatics Biocomputing and Perl. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publications.
  2. Paul W0. (2004). Bioinformatics Software Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publications.
  3. Edward K. (2005).Intelligent Bioinformatics John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,


  1. Baxevanis, A. S. Ouellette, B. F. F. (1998). Bioinformatics: a practical guide to the analysis of genses & proteins. Wiley-interscience., A. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publications.
  2. Krawetz,(2003). Introduction to Bioinformatics. American Society for Microbiology.
  3. Michael M., P. Barry (2004) Bioinformatics Biocomputing and Perl. John Wiley

               & Sons, Inc., Publications.

  1. Edward K. (2005).Intelligent Bioinformatics John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,Publications.


Animal Biotechnology



Course Code: BTGE-318                                                            Credit Hours 4(3+1)


Course Objectives:

  1. To provide students with a scientific and technical understanding of animal



  1. To introduce students to the commercial and ethical aspects of the biotechnology

industry, and to challenge students with some of the moral and ethical issues that face

biotechnologists, legislators and the general public.


Course Outcomes:


To present concepts of the potential influence of animal biotechnology on urban and rural communities and to encourage students to derive informed opinions on the potential benefit or danger of biotechnology and its impact on animal agriculture.


Course Contents:


Introduction, history and scope of animal biotechnology. Breeds of livestock in Pakistan, role of livestock in economic development.  Basic techniques of animal cell culture & their application Primary and established Culture • Cell lines and cloning disaggragation of tissue • Isolation of tissue • Enzyme disaggregation and • Mechanical disaggregation. Secondary culture • Transformed animal cells  • Continuous cell lines - spontaneous, chemical and viral. Transfection of animal cell lines, HAT selection, Selectable Markers  and Transplantation of culture lines. Measurement of viability, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Preservation and maintenance of animal cell lines, cryopreservation and transport of animal germplasm (i.e. semen, ovum and embryos).  Animal house design, breeding and maintenance of animals. Artificial animal breeding, artificial insemination, ectogenesis, amniocentesis, Animal farming. Gene transfer methods in animals, Transgenic animals, transplantation, cloning techniques, in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer techniques, selective animal breeding, hazards of artificial breeding. Transgenic animal technology.  Expression of mammalian genes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Animal Biotechnological products, Cell culture based vaccines, Somatic cell based genetics, Valuable products of cell culture.



  • Handling and preservation of animal cells;
  • Primary culture of chick embryo fibroblasts
  • Cloning of animal cells,;
  • Culture of lymphoid cells,
  • Cytotoxicity evaluation,
  • Cell transformation.


Books recommended:

  1. Range M. (2004). Animal Biotechnology. 2nd ed. Agrocios Publisher India. 
  • Dubey R. (2004). Text Book of Biotechnology.1st ed. S. Chand Publisher.
  • Joe Bearden and John W. Fuquay, Applied Animal Reproduction, Prentice Hall, 1997.
  • Susan R. Barnum, Biotechnology, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2005.
  • Living resources for Biotechnology, Animal cells : A. Doyle, R. Hay and B.E. Kirsop



Human Molecular Genetics


Course Code: BTGE-319                                                     Credit Hours 4(3+1)


Course Objectives:

Objectives of the course are;

  • To have a knowledge of the human genome organization and complexity.
  • To understand the Regulation of gene expression in human.
  • To have the knowledge of DNA sequencing and other approaches for mutation scanning.
  • To have knowledge about different techniques used for cloning purposes.

Course Outcomes:

Students after studying this course will be able to know the organization and distribution of human genes. They will able to know about control of gene expression in human. The students will become familiar with the techniques used for gene mapping. . The learner of this course will understand all the modern approaches used for mutations detection in genetic diseases and they will be able to think about conducting their research in human biotechnology.

Course Contents:

Human genome organization; human chromosome, gene structure, mutations, nuclear and mitochondrial genome, organization and distribution of human genes, human multigenes families, pseudogenes, repetitive sequences. Regulation of gene expression; control of gene expression at chromatin, transcription, post transcriptional and translational level. Physical Mapping; somatic cell hybrids, monochromosomal hybrids, FISH etc. Genetic Mapping and genetic markers ( RFLPs, STRPs, and SNPs). Positional cloning; candidate region, narrowing down of candidate region, human disease gene identification, mutation detection in candidate gene, characterization of gene, human gene expression and functional analysis. Gene silencing.


  • Genomic DNA extraction from whole blood by standard protocol.
  • Agarose and poly acryl amide gel electrophoresis.




  • Determination of UV absorption spectra of nucleic acid and quantification of DNA and RNA.
  • PCR amplification of human gene.
  • Separation of alleles on vertical non-denaturing gel.
  • Preparation of plasmid DNA.


Recommended Books:

  1. Strachan T, Andrew P (2004) 3rd edition, “Human Molecular Genetics” published by John Willy and Sons.
  2. Pasternack J (2005) 2nd edition “An Introduction to Human Molecular Genetics” published by John Willy and Sons.
  3. Glick B, Pasternack J (1998) 2nd edition “Molecular Biotechnology” published by ASM pres Washington DC
  4. Brown T. A. (2002). 2nd edition “Genomes”, Blackwell Science Inc.
  1. Sambrook J., Russell, D. W. and Sambrook, J. (2001). Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (3-Volume Set), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press


 8th Semester

Course Title

Medical Diagnostics

Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 0 3)


The main objectives of this course are:

·         To provide specialist information concerning the aims and objectives of medical diagnostics, enabling the students to critically evaluate when, why, which diagnostic procedures are used.

·         To demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of selected technologies in the different areas of medical diagnostics.

·         To stimulate reflection on how novel methods can be introduced and improved.


Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

·         Understand different technologies in the different areas of medical diagnostics.

·         Identify the strength and weakness of various technologies used in medical diagnostics.

·         Identify the areas of improvement.


·         Diagnostic techniques used for collection & handling of clinical specimens, pathogens isolation & identification by culturing, biochemical & molecular techniques, antibiotic susceptibility testing & infection control procedures.

·         Molecular Diagnostic, immunological/serological methods (Hemagglutination,  Agglutination, precipitation ,complement fixation , immunoassay methods,) especially for diagnosis of infectious diseases, Immunodeficiencies  and  pathogenesis of diseases of the immune system (immunophenotyping, evaluation of CD40 ligand, Diagnostic Evaluation of Humoral Immunity).

·         The technology, theory and practical approaches of common immunological/molecular genetics methods (Diagnostic Evaluation of Lymphocyte Functions and Cell-Mediated Immunity,).Biochemical, and cellular aspects of immune recognition utilizing (Dihydrorhodamine (DHR)-123  Flow Cytometric Assay, Measurement of cytokines by ELISA, Enumeration of lymphocytes and their subpopulation  by Flow Cytometry), Blood disease, (sickle cell anemia, thalasemia, leukemia).

Recommended Texts

·         Cheesbrough M. (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press.

·         Estridge BH, Reynolds AP. (2011).Basic Clinical Laboratory Techniques. 6th Edition. Cengage Delmar Learning Publisher.

·         Wilson K, Walker J. (2010). Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 7th Edition. Cambridge University Press.

·         Reddy V, Marques MB. (2007). Quick Guide to Hematology Testing. 1st Edition. John Wiley and Sons.

·         Armitage JO. (2008). Atlas of Clinical Hematology. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press.

·         Provan D. (2007). ABC of Clinical Hematology. 3rd Edition. John Wiley and Sons.

·         Rodak B, Fritsma GA, Keohane E. (2011). Hematology Clinical Principles & Applications. 4th Edition. Saunders.


Course Title

Protein Engineering

Course Code


Credit Hours

(3 0 3)




The main objectives of this course are:

·         To introduce various techniques for protein engineering and design.

·         To discuss methods for diversity generation and screening.

·         To present examples of engineered proteins for various applications. 


Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

·         Know various techniques employed for engineering proteins for practical purposes.

·         Have profound knowledge of how to generate a suitable library for enzyme screening.

·         Understand various approaches for screening a library.


·         Introduction to protein engineering, importance and scope.

·         Strategies of protein engineering: Rational design of proteins (site-directed mutagenesis), semi-rational design (site saturation mutagenesis), directed evolution (Error-prone PCR (epPCR), Sequence Saturation Mutagenesis (SeSaM), DNA shuffling, Staggered Extension Process (StEP)), protein engineering using non-canonical amino acids.

·         Library screening methods: Flow cytometry, phage display.

·         Protein engineering for improved biocatalysis: Engineering enzyme stability, engineering enzyme enantioselectivity, engineering enzyme specificity, engineering enzymes for use in non-conventional media.

Recommended Texts

·         Park SJ, Cochran JR. (2009). Protein Engineering and Design. 1st Edition. CRC Press.

·         Ramya M, Ponmurugan P. (2015). Protein Engineering. 1st Edition. Alpha Science Intl Ltd.

·         Lutz S, Bornscheuer UT. (2012). Protein Engineering Handbook. 1st Edition. Wiley-VCH.


Course Title

Food Biotechnology

Course Code


Credit Hours

(2 3 3)


The main objectives of this course are:

·         To offers a wide range of training with particular emphasis on fermentation Technology and Molecular Biology.


Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

·         Analyze relations between elements, connections and organizing principles for a given scientific/ technological/ engineering problem in food.


·         Introduction; Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics,

·         Biotechnology in food production and processing; Application of genetics to food production, impact of biotechnology on the food industries, impact of biotechnology on food and nutrition, impact of biotechnology on nutritional quality, filamentous fungi for production of food additives and processing aids.

·         Modification and bioconversion of raw material; Technology for the development of new breeding lines and plant varieties for the food industry, molecular cloning of enzymes for food industry.

·         Food Microbiology, Food borne diseases; Food Borne infections and intoxications. Different methods of food preservation. Food microbiology, Improvement of industrial microbes; Improvement of saccharomyces yeast strain used in brewing, wine making and baking.

·         Regulatory aspects of food biotechnology; Regulatory aspects of the use of modern biotechnological methods in food industry.


·         Experiments including physical nutritional aspect of microbial fermentations

·         Aerobic and anaerobic

·         Batch and continuous cultures

·         Ethanol production

·         Product recovery

·         Preparation of bakery products.

Recommended Texts

·         Modern Food Biotechnology, Human Health & Development: An Evidence Based Study. (2005). Food Safety Department, World Health Organization.

·         Knorr D. (1986). Food Biotechnology: Food Science and Technology. CRC Press.

·         Stahl U, Donalies UEB, Nevoigt E. (2008). Food Biotechnology. Springer.

·         El-Mansi EMT, Bryce CFA, Demain AL, Allman AR. (2011). Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology. 3rd Edition. CRC Press.

·         Malik VS, Malik. (1992). Industrial Biotechnology. Oxford University Press.

·         Lee YK, Poh CL, Tan MH. (1999). Application of Microbes in Biotechnology.


 MPhil (1st and 2nd Semester)

Genomics and Proteomics



Course Code: BTGE513                                                       Credit Hours: (3 0 3)


Course Objectives:

The course will help students better understand genomics and proteomics and its various types: the students will be equipped with modern techniques of finding genes as well as comparing genomes


Course Outcomes:

  • The students will have a thorough knowledge about the significance of genomics, genomics along with use of bioinformatics in the field of genomics.
  • The student will have a deep know-how about various proteomics techniques as well they will be able to sequence and search proteins using various bioinformatics tools.


Course Contents:

Introduction to genomics, its importance and scope, various types of genomics and their applications, Genome mapping and sequencing, Genome projects and genome analysis, Genome and DNA sequence analysis, Analysis of genetic variation using various biotechnology approaches,  Human Genome Project, Gene finding and annotation, Recent advances in genomics, use of bioinformatics in the field of genomics, Microarray technology and genomics.

Introduction to proteomics, Areas of proteomics, protein identification and analysis, protein modification in proteomics, proteins chips Technology and functional proteomics, Use of bioinformatics in proteomics. Microarray technology and proteomics.


Recommended Books:

  1. Campbell & Heyer. 2003. Discovering Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics. Pearson Education, ISBN: 0-8053-4722-4.
  2. Guido Grandi (2004) “Genomics, Proteomics and Vaccines, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons.
  3. Sensen, C.W. (2003) “Essentials of Genomics and Bioinformatics” Wiley.
  4. Pennington, R, Dunn, M ( 2000) “ Proteomics” 1st Edition, BIOS Scientific Publishers.
  5. Daniel C. Liebler. Introduction to Proteomics. Humana Press.






Molecular Cancer Biology



Course Code: BTGE522                                                      Credit Hours: (3 0 3)


Course Objectives


  • To understand the biology of cancer
  • To identify the factors causing cancer
  • To know about the role of genetics in cancer
  • To learn and understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the complex set of diseases called Cancer

Course Outcomes: Upon completion of the course the student will be able to:

  • Differentiate between normal and cancer cell
  • Describe key hallmarks of the cancer cell
  • Identify the relevant area of research within the cancer science division


Course Contents:

            PART 1: Cell Biology of Cancer

  1. Introduction to Cell Biology of Cancer.
  2. Different types of abnormal cells.
  3. Characteristic of Cancer cell and Normal cell.
  4. Classification of different types of cancer.
  5. Causes of Cancer Cells.
  6. Spread of Cancer cells.
  7. Tumor and its types.

            PART 2: Cancer Genetics

  • Introduction to cancer genetics
  • Genetic Alterations in Cancer Cells.
  • Viral oncogenes.
  • Tumor Suppressor Genes.
  • DNA Repair and Cancer.

            PART 3: Cancer Treatments

  1. Cancer Diagnosis, Screening and Treatments.
  2. Prevention and control of cancer in Pakistan.

Recommended Books:


  • Lauren Pecorino (2008). “Molecular Biology of Cancer - Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics”. 2nd Oxford University Press.
  • Dennis W. Ross (2000). “Introduction to Oncogenes and Molecular Cancer Medicine”. 1st Edition. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
  • Strachan S, Andrew P (2004). “Human Molecular Genetics”, 3rd  Willey and Sons. 
  • Macdonald and C. H. J. Ford (2003). “Molecular Biology of Cancer”, 3rd Edition. Taylor & Francis publishers.
  • Stella Pelengaris, Michael Khan and Maria Blasco (2006). “The Molecular Biology of Cancer”, 1st Blackwell Publishers.




Advances in Cell & Tissue Culture Technology



Course Code: BTGE531                                                         Credit Hours: (2 0 2)



Course Objectives


  • To introduce the underlying principles of aseptic culture of cells, tissues and organs.
  • To provide information about the equipment, procedures and terminology used in tissue culture.
  • To review specialized tissue culture techniques and their use in research and industry.


Course Outcomes: At the end of course, student will be able to maintain aseptic techniques in controlled condition with basic information on induction of organs from callus of plant with influence of hormones and external factors. Student will be able to explain the application of tissue culture in Biotechnology and genetic engineering to produce transgenic organism.


Course contents

Part 1

Plan tissue culture

  • Callus and cell culture: Introduction 2. Callus induction  3. Callus culture  4. Cell suspension culture
  • Protoplast culture: Introduction 2. Protoplast isolation  3. Protoplast culture  4. Protoplast fusion
  • Organogenesis: Definition  2. Organogenesis process  3. Developmental sequences  4. Examples
  • Plant transformation: General introduction  2. Plant transformation                          3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation  4. DNA-mediated transformation
  • Somaclonal Variation

Part II

Animal Tissue Culture

  1. Monitoring culture: 1. Direct method 2. Indirect method 3. cell viability determination
  2. 3 dimensional culture: 1. Organ culture 2. Histotypic culture 3. Embryo culture 4. Applications





  1. Maintenance of culture: 1. Inoculation 2. Subculture 3. Phases of culture 4. Contamination recognization 5. Medium for animal tissue culture.
  2. Animal cell culture: 1. Cells from Tissue 2. cell types 3. Embryonic stem cells 4. Adult stem cells 5. culture of differentiated cells.
  3. Cell line culture and preservation: 1. Variation and instability in cell lines 2. culture conditions. 3. Preservation
  4. Gene Manipulation in culture: 1. Need for mammalian cells 2. How to get DNA into mammalian cells. 3. cell Transfection 4. Gene expression
  5. Productivity: 1. Applications 2. production of Biologicals from cell culture 3. Purification 4. Scale of production 5. Use in genetic engineering


Recommended Books:

  • Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 2004. O.L. Gamborg and G.C. Phillips
  • A Laboratory Manual of Plant Biotechnology, 2006. Dr. S.S. Purohit
  • Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources In Vitro, 1997. M.K. Razdan and E.C. Cocking
  • Biotechnology of Animal Tissue, R. Yadav and Rajiv Tyagi
  • Culture of Animal Cells - A Manual of Basic Technique, 5th Edition. Ian Freshney Wiley




Advances in Plant Biotechnology



Course Code: BTGE533                                                       Credit Hours: (3 0 3)


Course Objectives:

The aim of the course is to give the student a hands-on understanding for the possibilities in applied plant research and practical knowledge in solving important problems in plant biotechnology and molecular breeding.


Course Outcomes:

After studding this course students will be able;

  • To know about that, how plants can be transformed by foreign genes for maximum productivity.
  • To know about the application of genetic engineering in plants.



Course Contents:

Production of transgenic plants; scope and the environmental impact of transgenic plants. Pathway engineering in plants. Improvement of resistance to insect attack. Improvement of resistance to pathogenic fungi. Engineering salt tolerant plants. Phytoremediation and biofortification. Improvement of nutrient efficiency. Cell wall products. Biotech products for developing countries.  T-DNA Tagging, trnsposon tagging, insertion mutagenesis


Recommended Books:


  1. Purohit S (2001) 2nd edition, “Biotechnology Fundamentals and Applications” Agrobios (India).
  2. Chawla H (2000) 2nd edition, “Introduction to Plant Biotechnology” Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
  3. Nigel Halford (2006). “Plant Biotechnology: Current and Future Applications of Genetically Modified Crops”, 3rd Edition. Wiley Publishers.
  4. H. Mantell and H. Smith (2000). “Plant Biotechnology”, 5th Edition. Cambridge University Press.
  5. Adrian Slater, Nigel W. Scott and Mark R. Fowler (2008). “Plant Biotechnology: The Genetic Manipulation of Plants”, 2nd Edition. Oxford University



Logic (Philosophy of Science)


  PLS461                                                                              Credit Hours: (3 0 3)


PhD (1st and 2nd Semester)

Bioprocess and Biochemical Engineering


Course Code: BTGE721                                                        Credit Hours: (3 0 3)


Course Objectives:

This course is designed to give biotechnology students an understanding of fundamentals of and bio processing and biochemical engineering.

Course Outcomes:    

Students will:        

  • Develop an understanding of enzyme kinetics, immobilization cell kinetics, bio-reactor design, sterilization, agitation and aeration 
  • Design bioreactors
  • Apply the knowledge of biotechnology and biochemical engineering for industrial purposes.

Course Outline:

Enzyme Kinetic; simple enzyme kinetics, enzyme reactor, inhibition, other influences, and experiments.

Immobilized Enzyme; immobilization techniques and effect of mass transfer resistance. Industrial Applications of Enzymes; carbohydrates, starch conversion, cellulose conversion, and experiment.

Cell Cultivations; microbial, animal, and plant cell cultivations, cell growth measurement, cell immobilization, and experiments.

Cell Kinetics and Fermenter Design; growth cycle, cell kinetics, batch or plug-flow stirred-tank fermenter, continuous stirred-tank fermenter (CSTF), multiple fermenters in series, CSTF with cell recycling, alternative fermenters and structured kinetic models.

Agitation and aeration; basic mass-transfer concepts, correlations form mass-transfer coefficient, measurement of interfacial area, correlations for interfacial area, gas hold-up, power consumption, oxygen absorption rate, scale-up, and shear sensitive mixing.

Transport phenomenon; mass and heat transfer mechanisms, heat transfer and oxygen transfer coefficients, rheological properties of a fermentation broth.

Bioprocess monitoring and control; online and offline analysis, monitoring variables, pH, temperature, agitation and foam level.

Down stream processing; primary separation, removal of microbial cells and solid matter, precipitation, filteration, cantrifugation and cell disruption. Product isolation and purification techniques. Product polishing. Production of alcohol, vinegar, cheese, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins and hormone on industrial scale.

Upstream processing; principles of microbial nutrition, media formulation for cell growth and product formation, batch and continuous sterilisation, air sterlization, design and air filters, asceptic operation of fermentors, inoculum development for industrial fermentations.


Recommended Books:


  1. Michael L. Shuler and Fikret Kargi (2002). “Bioprocess Engineering, Basic Concepts," 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill Publishers.
  2. Robert Steel (2007). Biochemical Engineering, 2nd Edition. On-line Edition.

3.      P F Stanbury, A. Whitekar, S. Hall (2000) Principles of Fermentation Technology 2nd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann Publishers.

  1. E. M. T. El-Mansi, C. F. A. Bryce, Arnold L. Demain, A.R. Allman   
  2. (2006)Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2nd  Edition, CRC Publishers.
  3. Pak-Lam Yu (2000). Fermentation Technologies: Industrial Applications, 3rd Edition. Elsevier Applied Sciences Publications.



RNA Interference Technology


Course Code: BTGE731                                                                 Credit Hours: (3 0 3)


Course Objectives:

  • To know how RNAi can be harnessed to modulate gene expression and perform genetic screens both in cells and in various organisms.
  • To understand and treat any disease with a genetic basis

Course Outcomes:

The students will be able to understand:

  • The basic mechanism for RNAi generation,
  • Gene silencing for the treatment of various infectious and genetic diseases through RNAi technology
  • To hunt the genes through RNAi

Course Contents:

Introduction; the discovery of RNA interference, the basic mechanism of RNAi. Dicer in RNAi: its roles in vivo and utility in vitro. Physiological relevance of the RNAi pathway. Short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and their delivery to cells. Stable expression of siRNA: Short hairpins and expression vectors. Generation of transgenic animals for in vivo silencing. Design of potent siRNA sequences. Large-scale genetic analyses using RNAi. Genes required for RNA interference. Using RNAi in the prevention of disease. Delivering siRNA in vivo for functional genomics and novel therapeutics. Future of RNAi.







Recommended Books:


  1. Krishnarao Appasani (2005). RNA Interference Technology: From Basic Science to Drug Development, 2nd Cambridge University Press.

2.    Muhammad Sohail (2005). “Gene Silencing by RNA Interference: Technology and Application”, 1st Edition. Science Press.

  1. Ute Schepers (2006). “RNA Interference in Practice”, 2nd Edition. Wiley-VCH Publishers.
  2. Gordon Carmichael (2005). “RNA Silencing: Methods and Protocols”, 1st Humana Press.
  3. David R. Engelke and John J. Rossi (2005). “RNA Interference”, 2nd Edition. Academic Press.





Course Code: BTGE732                                                           Credit Hours: (3 0 3)


Course Objectives:

  • To introduce the newly introduced technology and guide the student to think in the research area of this new field of nano-biotechnology also.
  • To understand mechanism of biosensor and bioreactors

Course Outcomes:

The learner of this course will become familiar with this new technology and they will be able to think about conducting their research in this new field of nano-biotechnology.

Course Contents:

Definitions and terminology of Nanobiotechnology. Molecular motors, DNA hybridization control, using mental ion crystal antennae. DNA based nanofabrication. Self assembling DNA tilings as structural templates. Molecular electronic microarray.

Concepts and applications of Biosensors; noninvasive biosensors in clinical analysis, Applications of biosensor-based instruments to the bioprocess industry. Application of biosensors to environmental samples, biochips and their application in modern sciences. Bioreactors: components, design, functions, types and applications. Bioreactors for immobilized cells, animal cells, waste water and effluent treatment.

Recommended Books:

  1. Crocker and D. Burnett (2005). “The Science of Laboratory Diagnosis”, 2nd Edition. John Press.
  2. Ratner and D. Ratner. (2002). “Nanotechnology: A Gentle Introduction to the Next” BigIdea, Prentice Hall.
  3. C. Guyton and J.E.  Hall.  (2001). “Text book of Medical Physiology” 10th   Edition. Big Idea Prentece Hall.
  4. G. Ramsay. (1998). “Commercial Biosensors” 1st Edition John Wiley and Sons, 


  1. K. Smith and M. Kish. (1998) “Principles of Cell Biology” Harper-Cellins Pub. Inc.    New Delhi.